Perovskite is a material having same crystal structure like the mineral calcium titanium oxide, the first-discovered perovskite crystal. Basically, perovskite compounds have a chemical formula ABX3, where ‘A’ and ‘B’ represent cations and X is an anion that bonds to both. A large number of different elements can be combined together to form perovskite structures. Utilizing this compositional flexibility, scientists are able to design perovskite crystals having a wide variety of physical, optical, and electrical characteristics. Perovskite crystals are found today in ultrasound machines, memory chips, and now – solar cells. Photovoltaic solar cells depends on semiconductors - materials in the middle ground between electrical insulators like glass and metallic conductors such as copper - to turn the energy from light into electricity. Light from the sun excites electrons in the semiconductor material, which flow into conducting electrodes and produce electric current. Primary semicond
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