How electric cars work?
The Core Components of an Electric Car
An electric car contains the following core components:
The charging port of an electric car works as a medium to supply energy to the battery from an electric charging station. A standard 240-volt outlet can charge an electric car for the whole night.
In order to convert the direct current (DC) of the battery of an electric car into an alternating current (AC), inverters are used. After converting into AC, the necessary power is supplied to the electric traction motor. The motor frequencies are controlled by the inverter. Therefore, there is a significant impact of the inverter on controlling the speed of the electric car.
A rotating magnetic field is generated when the electric traction motor gets AC power from the inverter. It helps turn the motor. The efficiency of the motor is comparatively high. It provides power from the pedal to the engine instantly.
The supplied energy of the car is stored in the battery, which helps to provide necessary power to the motor and other electrical components. Most cars use lithium-ion batteries, which provide a huge amount of current and require less maintenance in comparison to other batteries. The unit of power is kilowatts (kW). On the other hand, the unit of energy is the kilowatt-hour (kWh), which indicates how much electric power is used for an hour. An electric car consumes an average of around 2,000 kWh of energy a year.
The electric power-train
An electric power-train basically consists of an inverter, an electric motor, a reduction drive, and a battery. It incorporates the overall high-voltage electrical system for driving the car. They are compressed and deliver less vibration with instant torque. Some inverters in the power-train help to transfer unused AC power during braking into DC power. This power can be stored back in the battery.
Types of electric cars:
There are various types of electric cars. Cars that run only on electricity are known as pure electric cars. On the other hand, cars that can also operate on diesel or petrol are called hybrid electric cars.
- Plug-in electric cars: These cars operate only on electric power. They are energized when they are plugged into a charging point. As there is no requirement for diesel or petrol to operate, there are no emissions in these cars.
- Plug-in hybrid cars: These cars basically operate on electric power but also have a conventional fuel engine wherein fuel such as diesel or petrol can be used in case of a shortage of charge. Emissions are produced during fuel operation. This type of car can be plugged into an electric power source for recharging the battery.
- Hybrid electric cars: These cars operate essentially on fuel such as diesel or petroleum or diesel and also have the option of an electric battery. There are options with a button for switching from fuel engine mode to electric car mode. These cars depend on fuel, such as diesel or petrol, for energy. There is no option to plug into an electric power source.
How to charge an electric car?
An electric car can be charged either by connecting it to an attachment or by connecting it to a charging unit. There are three sorts of chargers:
- Three-pin plug: a standard three-pin plug that can be interfaced with any 13-amp attachment.
- Socketed: a charge point which can be interfaced with either a Type 1 or Type 2 link.
- Fastened: an accuse point of a link appended with either a Type 1 or Type 2 connector.
There are, additionally, three types of charging speeds:
- Slow: Has a charging time of 8–10 hours and can charge up to 3kW.
- Quick: Can be charged either at 7Kw or 22kW with a charging time of 3–4 hours.
- Charges very quickly: Can charge up to 43 kW in 30 to 60 minutes.It is only compatible with electric cars that have very fast charging ability.
Charging up in various seasons
The weather conditions influences how much energy your electric can consumes. You have a bigger reach in summer and more modest reach in winter.